All time references are in CEST
Basic Human Values 2
|Session Organisers|| Professor Eldad Davidov (University of Cologne and URPP Social Networks, University of Zurich)
Professor Jan Cieciuch (Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw and University of Zurich)
Professor Peter Schmidt (University of Giessen and University of Mainz)
|Time||Wednesday 19 July, 16:00 - 17:30|
The session on basic human values in which researchers can present their studies on and advance the understanding of human values from different points of view and using survey data and various methods has been present at ESRA conferences for many years now. These presentations often developed into published studies in substantive and methodological journals and books. We wish to continue this tradition at the upcoming ESRA conference.
Indeed, values have held an important position in the social sciences since their inception. They have been used to explain the motivational bases of attitudes and behavior and to characterize differences between both individuals and societies. One of the most often used value model is the one proposed by Schwartz (1992; Schwartz et al., 2012). The designers of the European Social Survey (ESS) chose this theory as the basis for developing a human values scale to include in the core of the survey.
In this session we welcome presentations on continuing work on basic human values as postulated by Schwartz, using the ESS and other data sources. Possible presentation topics may include (but are not limited to):
(1) the measurement of human values in various languages and cultures;
(2) values as predictors of attitudes, opinions and behavior;
(3) values as consequences of various variables such as sociodemographic characteristics;
(4) value change and development among children, adolescents and adults, using various methods of data analysis;
(5) relations between different types of human values measurements (such as the PVQ-57, the PVQ-40 and the picture-based measures);
(6) multilevel and multigroup structural equation models and mixture models, using human values as individual and contextual predictors.
Both substantive and methodological papers using cross-sectional, cross-cultural or longitudinal datasets of basic human values are welcome.
Keywords: Basic human values; Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ); Value measurements; Value change
Ms Radka Hanzlová (Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences) - Presenting Author
Ms Melanie Partsch (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)
Aspirations or goals, that refer to the long-term aims people value and strive for, are one of the key concepts in psychology (Kasser, 2002). According to self-determination theory (SDT), two basic types of human motives can be distinguished – intrinsic and extrinsic. To measure aspirations, SDT researchers developed the Aspiration Index (AI) (Kasser & Ryan, 1993; 1996). This inventory originally comprised 35 items measuring three extrinsic aspirations (wealth, fame, image), three intrinsic aspirations (personal growth, relationships, community), and the aspiration of health which cannot be clearly classified, each represented by five items.
The AI is widely explored, with researchers testing its modifications. In our study, we test and validate a shortened version of the AI with 28 items (four per dimension) in Germany, United Kingdom, and Czechia. Thereby, we aim to verify the theory proposed by Grouzet et al. (2005), which depicts aspiration into a two-dimensional space. One dimension is the traditional intrinsic and extrinsic goals, and the second is self-transcendence and physical goals. According to Grouzet et al. (2005), aspirations can also be represented as a circumplex model, which is very similar to Schwartz's value model (1992). We will present the results, in which we focus on testing the AI in terms of its validity and cross-cultural comparability. The research was realized in 2021 via an online questionnaire in three European countries – Germany (N = 438), the United Kingdom (N = 442), and Czechia (N = 960).
Regarding the methods used, we apply confirmatory factor analysis to verify the basic structure of AI and multidimensional scaling for the graphical representation in two-dimensional space. The validity of AI was tested through correlation with the Human Values Scale, life satisfaction, health, and some behavioural statements. Finally, multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test cross-cultural comparability.
Ms Marina Maglić (Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar) - Presenting Author
Dr Tomislav Pavlović (Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar)
Professor Renata Franc (Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar)
The main goal of this study was to investigate the structure of young people's basic values and examine the relationship with social dominance orientation (SDO) and climate change awareness and behavioural intentions on a cross-national youth sample.
Values have been a central concept in social sciences, and there is evidence that they are critical motivators of behaviours and attitudes. They are presumed to be guiding principles in selecting or evaluating actions, policies, people, and events, from workplace and school to business and politics. Although the circular structure of the ten values proposed by Schwartz may be culturally universal, we investigate whether distinctive profiles can be identified among cross-national youth samples and statistically evaluate typologies based on these samples.
Data on more than 15 thousand 16-17 years old high-school students from nine countries (Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, Latvia, Croatia, Slovakia, Georgia, Turkey and India) used in this study were collected within the EU Horizon2020 CHIEF project. Latent Class Analysis was used to extract homogeneous clusters of personal values which resulted in similar response profiles across the nine countries. In addition, SDO and climate change attitudes were employed in validation analysis, which resulted in robust confirmation of the established profiles distinctiveness.
The results are discussed in terms of strengths and weaknesses of the Schwartz value theory and the Ten Item Values Inventory in relation to SDO and climate change attitudes.
Ms Melanie Viola Partsch (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences) - Presenting Author
Dr Isabelle Schmidt (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)
Mr Peter Hähner (Ruhr University Bochum)
Dr Radka Hanzlová (Charles University)
Dr Clemens Martin Lechner (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)
Values and life goals are powerful individual difference constructs to understand human experiences and behaviors. Therefore, many large-scale surveys assess value constructs with instruments developed for that purpose. However, existing instruments do not fully meet the requirements of large-scale surveys (i.e., high validity and reliability combined with high efficiency and low respondent burden). We therefore developed the Values and Life Goals Inventory (VaLiGo) that measures the 10 values from Schwartz’ Theory of Basic Human Values in the form of abstract personal life goals with a modular concept: A 10-item ultra-short version, a 20-item version offering higher reliability and construct coverage at the level of individual values, as well as a full 30-item version that ideally lends itself for planned-missingness designs. The shorter versions are nested into the longer versions, allowing flexible applications across survey waves. We present VaLiGo’s psychometric properties based on a large German quota sample (N = 565)—always in comparison with the 21 items from the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) applied in the European Social Survey: We show a) measures of respondent burden, b) scale reliability, c) convergent, discriminant, and criterion scale validity in a nomological net with the PVQ-21, the Big Five, specific traits (e.g., political orientation), and different criteria (e.g., income, civic engagement), and d) joint explanatory power of all VaLiGo scales. Furthermore, we present first results on e) VaLiGo’s cross-cultural applicability based on its adaption to the English and Czech language (Germany: N = 438, United Kingdom: N = 442, Czech Republic: N = 960) and f) VaLiGo’s relations with the recently revised PVQ-RR (Germany: N ≈ 700). Our results suggest that VaLiGo keeps up with or outperforms other human value measurements and can be readily applied in (large-scale) surveys.
Dr Matthias Sand (GESIS - Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences) - Presenting Author
Dr Henning Silber (GESIS - Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences)
Professor Eldad Davidov (University of Cologne and URPP Social Networks, University of Zurich)
Professor Peter Schmidt (Justus Liebig University Giessen; Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
Shalom Schwartz proposed a value theory in 1992 and presented various scales to measure the values in his theory. There is a very large body of literature studying their measurement properties, consequences and also causes in many countries and settings. However, only a few studies examined the stability and change of these values in general, and in times of crisis in particular. This is unfortunate, because the issue of stability and change is central to the value theory. Our current study tries to bridge this gap. Using the GESIS Panel, a mixed-mode (online and mail) probability-based panel study of the German population, in which the Schwartz values are asked annually, we examine the stability and change of basic human values between 2014 and 2021. Thus, we were able to investigate whether human values have been stable over time before the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the “shock” experienced during the global health crisis affected basic values structures. For the analysis we employed latent growth models (lgm) to look at intra- and inter-individual differences of the value scores simultaneously over the 8 points in time. First results suggest that basic values have been highly stable over time, even during the COVID-19 crisis. Surprisingly, this stable pattern was evident across various age and gender groups and further among people belonging to a risk group.
Dr Marcus Eisentraut (GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences) - Presenting Author
Dr Daniel Seddig (University of Cologne)
Professor Eldad Davidov (University of Cologne and URPP Social Networks, University of Zurich)
Professor Peter Schmidt (Justus Liebig University Gießen)
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers from various disciplines have attempted to explain the willingness to vaccinate against the virus. Human values are known to exert systematic effects on diverse attitudes and behaviors. However, to date, no studies have examined the significant role that human values may play in explaining vaccination intentions. We investigated the relevance of Basic Human Values (PVQ-RR) in explaining attitudes toward vaccination against COVID-19 and vaccination status using two waves of panel data collected among adult participants (18-74 years, n=3445) in a German online study in April 2021 (t1) and August/September 2021 (t2). We found the values Conformity and Universalism (UN-Tolerance and UN-Concern) to exert the most substantial positive effects on vaccination intentions. By contrast, Self-Direction (SD-Thought and SD-Action) was associated with hesitancy toward vaccination on a behavioral level. The results suggest that values with a social focus are more likely to foster vaccination against COVID-19, whereas those with a personal emphasis decelerate it.