Push2Web and Nudge2Web: Combining Mail and Online Survey Modes to Reduce Survey Errors and Survey Cost
|Convenor||Professor Henning Best (University of Wuerzburg )|
|Coordinator 1||Professor Michael Bosnjak (GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)|
|Coordinator 2||Mrs Tanja Dannwolf (GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)|
This paper reviews 19 U.S. surveys of electric and gas utility customers conducted by Nexant, Inc. in which variants of a “push2web” methodology were used. Mail and email contacts, as well as the possibility of responding by web or mail were tested in various combinations in order to evaluate the response quality, costs, and how well the demographics of the completed samples matched the population is from which those samples were drawn. This paper significantly extends research on how to improve web response rates and data quality by combining multiple modes of contact as well as response.
Empirical evidence confirming the benefits of mixing web and mail in the European context is still relatively limited. In this paper we present results from mode comparison experiments carried out in Switzerland. We focus on the question of whether using mail follow-ups to contact nonrespondents to a web survey (for which respondents were recruited off-line) helps to improve sample representativeness, and to reduce nonresponse bias. We combine two sources of data to address these questions: auxiliary data from the register-based sampling frame, and data from a nonresponse follow-up survey.
Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a US study of drug use. Each year, a nationally representative sample of 12th-graders (age 18) is surveyed and a subsample is followed longitudinally using paper questionnaires. To investigate a web-based follow-up option, investigators conducted a sequential mixed mode experiment in 2014 with various strategies to promote (“push”) either postal mail or web-based response. Participants (N=4,941) were randomly assigned to three conditions: Mail Push, Web Push, or Web Push + Email correspondence. The presentation will focus on response rates by condition and differences in data quality and responses by mode.
This paper compares different recruitment strategies for a mixed-mode-survey (mail and web) of small and medium enterprises. We randomly assigne participants to experimental groups, varying the intensity of pushing them to participation via web. In the first invitation, 50% of the participants receive a paper questionnaire, and 50% of that group an additional web link. The no-paper group receives a web link only. In the second and third wave of invitations, the experimental design is continued. Based on this design we can empirically compare push2web and nudge2web strategies in business surveys.