Using Surveys to Study the Environment
|Convenor||Dr Malcolm Fairbrother (University of Bristol )|
|Coordinator 1||Dr Kerry Ard (Ohio State University)|
This research segments the British public according their perception of the environment and environmental problems. Measures of environmental concern are taken from DEFRA’s survey of UK environmental attitudes and behaviours, and analysed using latent class analysis Four classes are produced, capturing different perceptions of the environment and how it is at risk. Environmental attitudes and sociodemographic characteristics of class members are also assessed. Following this, class membership probability is regressed onto 16 measures of pro-environmental behaviour to determine how different forms of concern influence such behaviour. Results provide answers for how environmental attitudes can influence pro-environmental behaviour.
We examined the extent to which an individual’s life satisfaction is shaped by air pollution. Analysis of subjective wellbeing indicators from the last two waves of the European Social Survey and detailed information on the air pollutant PM10 in Estonia showed that an increase in PM10 annual concentrations by 1 μg/m3 was associated with a significant reduction in life satisfaction of 0.017 points on the ESS 10-point life satisfaction scale. Thus, even in cases of relatively low levels of air pollution (annual concentration 8.3±3.9 μg/m3), in addition to the effects on physical
Several scholars attach a fundamental role to the development of cosmopolitan attitudes among democratic electorates, often regarding these attitudes as prerequisites for maintaining world peace and avoiding ecological disaster. Still, very few studies investigate the translation of cosmopolitan attitudes into political orientations and preferences. This study uses latent class analysis (LCA) and representative Swedish survey data from 2013 to study cosmopolitan attitudes, and examine whether these attitudes are linked to subjective left-right placement and party voting preferences. The results show that about 19 percent of Swedes hold cosmopolitan attitudes, and that cosmopolitans are comparably more leftist and green voting.
Urban populations are increasingly vulnerable to heat stress due to urban expansion, environmental changes, and demographic transitions. A policy priority in the public health community is to create socio-environmental indicators that identify the most vulnerable populations in cities so that effective strategies to mitigate heat stress can be developed. This study examines vulnerability to heat stress by comparing household surveys conducted in Berlin, Germany (2013) and Phoenix, USA (2011). Comparative surveys can help cities learn from each other how to make residents more resilient to the health dangers of extreme heat and environmental change.
This paper investigates whether communities with more social capital are better able to protect themselves from known sources of airborne pollution in the United States. At some scales, we find that communities with more of some types of social capital are indeed located further from polluting industrial facilities. We also find however that controlling for differences in social capital barely attenuates the disproportionate exposure to pollution of low-income and minority communities. Contrary to one influential strand of environmental inequality theory, then, such differences cannot explain why minorities and the poor are disproportionately exposed to pollution.