Dealing with content validity in cross-cultural research. Methodological challenges and innovative approaches
|Convenor||Dr Wolfgang Aschauer (University of Salzburg )|
|Coordinator 1||Professor Martin Weichbold (University of Salzburg)|
Cross-cultural research typically attends to a strict linguistic equivalence requirement. The paper suggests loosening the requirement of using identically worded items in all cultures in favor of a more emic methodology. Addressing the relationship of paternal warmth and trust in five cultures (Germany, Moldova, Togo, Zambia, Zimbabwe), an approach is suggested that develops items autonomously within cultures, subsequently ascertains structural and measurement equivalence of covariance matrices obtained on the basis of the differently worded items, and finally validates the measurement by showing the equality of the relationship of the differentially measured latent construct with the comparison variable in all
The meaning of ‘medicines’ is likely to vary cross-culturally (e.g. whether including remedies) which raises content validity issues in cross-national research on ‘medicines’. This study aims 1) to investigate the understanding of the word ‘medicines’ among culturally diverse young adults and 2) to enhance knowledge of cross-cultural data collection by comparing classic interviews vs. innovative visual card sorts. Transcripts of structured interviews (N=16, from 3 continents) were analysed using content analysis, with a coding scheme partially constructed a priori. The card sort was analysed based on the selected characteristics as depicted on the visual cards.
More and more relationships are studied comparatively in more than one country. Regarding the concept of teacher professional community, cross-cultural research would allow to observe if teachers within different countries collaborate with the same or different intensity. In this context, the methodological question that arises is under which conditions can we compare the presence and the relationships of the latent concept of professional community across different countries? How important is to establish construct equivalence but also content validity? The present study will present the results of MGCFA across 36 countries and possible applications based on the results found.
Religiosity is a multidimensional, multifaceted phenomenon. This paper looks at thirty-nine countries worldwide to identify typologies of individual religiosity. Individual LCAs on all countries available have identified different typologies based on the number of clusters and conditional response probabilities. To be able to conduct cross-national comparisons, it is tested for construct validity by MGCFA. By LCA itself it is tested for measurement invariance. The strategy is not to delete any items for the benefit of construct validity across thirty-nine countries. The paper rather seeks to identify similar typologies and discusses reasons for non-comparability.