Analyzing sexual prejudice and sexual orientation with survey data 1
|Convenor||Mrs Anabel Kuntz (University of Cologne )|
|Coordinator 1||Dr Stephanie Steinmetz (University of Amsterdam)|
In 2012 the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights carried out a European LGBT survey covering 28 countries, using a web-based opt-in approach. While the results might not be representative for the LGBT population as a whole, they show that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons face obstacles in the enjoyment of their fundamental rights. They provide an insight into discrimination, hate speech and hate crime experiences of 90,000 LGBT persons. The presentation provides an overview of the methodology and the main results combined with information on the prevalence of prejudices against this group from other surveys.
Whilst much legislation has been passed in Northern Ireland to address discrimination based on sexual orientation, much of it has been controversial. It has been argued that religious and moral discourse often impacts on such policy and legislative change. This paper will use data from the 2012 and 2013 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey to explore public attitudes to issues affecting the LGB community, such as same-sex marriage and adoption. Previous survey data will help explore if, and how, attitudes have changed over time, and whether government policy is in tune with public opinion.
This paper provides a means to identify different types of social acceptance of homosexuality. It shows that social background variables are much poorer predictors of high levels of acceptance than gender, generation and attitude to religion. In particular, variations linked to social background depend on the type of variable used: the upper classes stand out as more gay-friendly on very abstract positions of principle, but when more practical indicators of acceptance are used, this specificity disappears. It also shows the importance, for women especially, of biographical variables relating to individual experience of sexuality and intimate relationships.
Homosexuality and religion – no matter which denomination - are mostly conflict-prone. Higher levels of religiosity lead in general to higher levels of homophobia. Does this equation also hold at its extremes? Pointedly formulated: Does no religiosity, i.e. Atheism, lead to no homophobia? Besides showing general trends of homophobia in Europe for three decades, we aim at discerning whether Atheism is an influencing factor for homophobia. As our analyses show being an Atheist does negatively affect one’s level of homophobia, but only in Western Europe. There is a clear divide between former communist and western democratic countries.