ESRA 2019 Draft Programme at a Glance
World Values Survey: New Research Horizons and Methodological Challenges 1
|Session Organisers|| Dr Keseniya Kizilova (Head of the Secretariat, World Values Survey Association)
Professor Christian Haerpfer (President, World Values Survey Association)
|Time||Friday 19th July, 11:00 - 12:30|
The World Values Survey (WVS) is one of the world's largest and longest time-series global social research programs. WVS studies changing values and their impact on social and political life. In 1981-2018, the WVS has carried out representative national surveys in over 110 countries containing 92% of the world’s population. Work on analysing this data has been invaluable for a global network of scholars and international development agencies, including the World Bank, the UNDP, the WHO, regional development banks etc.
WVS wave 7 constitutes the next round of the program. Around 100 000 respondents in over 70 world countries will be interviewed in the course of 2017-2019 on a great scope of issues, including social values, attitudes & stereotypes; societal well-being; social capital, trust and organizational membership; economic values; corruption; migration; post-materialist index; science & technology; religious values; security; ethical values & norms; political interest and political participation; political culture and political regimes. New survey findings on these and other topics will be presented within this panel.
The ambition of the WVS-7 survey round includes testing a number of new survey items belonging both to the WVS research agenda (new forms of political participation, attitudes towards migration, corruption, security etc.) as well as designed to measure the Sustainable Development Goals indicators such as inclusive and responsive decision-making. Results of this pilot in different national and cultural contexts and conclusions on the reliability and validity of the new items will be presented in the panel.
In wave 7 WVS continues extending its geographical coverage and includes countries lacking reliable statistical and census information (i.e. Lebanon or the UAE). National teams in these countries elaborated their own methodological approaches to build national representative samples. WVS scholars will share their sample design techniques within the frame of this panel.
WVS-7 survey round is also innovative in application of mix-mode survey methods, combining online panels, face-to-face interviews and telephone surveys. Panel will feature presentations comparing findings collected in parallel via different survey methods in the same countries allowing to estimate the reliability of mixed-mode surveys as well as the challenges and prospects of methods combination.
We invite submissions dealing both with the analysis of WVS 1-7 waves data and methodological aspects of the WVS surveys implementation. We welcome submissions from both members of the WVS network and independent scholars.
Keywords: World Values Survey, comparative, cross-sectional, cross-cultural, mix-mode methods, survey technique, survey methodology
Values and Social Capital: Cohort Trends in Russia, Poland and Sweden
Miss Anna Almakaeva (Higher School of Economics) - Presenting Author
Miss Evgeniya Mitrokhina (Higher School of Economics)
Putnam defines social capital as a combination of generalized trust, networks and pro-social norms facilitating mutual cooperation (Putnam, 2001). There is wide evidence on its antecedents but the role of human values has been underinvestigated. At the same time, values as desirable goals and principles which guide human behavior (Schwartz & Bilsky, 1987) may have a great impact on social capital. Indeed, several papers demonstrate that postmaterialist values amplify the level of generalized trust and civic activity (Rothstein & Uslaner, 2005; Christian Welzel & Deutsch, 2012). However, these studies used cross-sectional design and focused on general influence of values. We overcome these limitations incorporating cohort time trends provided by all rounds of the WVS in Russia, Poland and Sweden. Comparative approach allows to test how different macro-level setting affects social capital. From this point of view, Russia is a unique case to trace the impact of harsh socio-economic transformations. Poland is a former communist country which successfully integrated into European community. Sweden - one of the few countries with high level of social capital - serves as a benchmark.
Our preliminary analysis demonstrates that time and cohort value trends have similar patterns with trust only in Sweden, but not in Russia and Poland. Probably, generalized trust experienced deeper influence of crisis and has been recovering more slowly than values. Signing petitions does not match value and trust trends as well. The most surprising result is relations between values and pro-social norms measured through justification of bribe taking, cheating of taxes, claiming illegal government benefits and avoiding fare on public transport. They showed unrelated trends in Sweden and negatively correlated trends in Russia. Only Poland partly supports support the idea that posmaterialist values boost pro-social norms. It demonstrated mutual positive tendencies on values, cheating taxes and bribe-taking. These conclusions force seeking alternative factors which shape time and cohort differences
Trust and Media Consumption in Democratic and Non-Democratic Regimes: The World Values Survey Results
Mrs Olesya Volchenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
Dr Anna Shirokanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics) - Presenting Author
Television has been blamed for decreasing social trust due to time replacement and the content of news reports. Internet has lately taken over as another major source of information. As a many-to-many communication channel, the Internet helps create and maintain connections between individuals. However, due to the online echo chamber effect, ‘information bubbles’ appear that reinforce pre-existing stereotypes and lead to the decay of social trust. Previous research has scrutinized the relationship between the major source of news for individuals and their level of generalized trust. We connect this perspective to the debate on whether democracy facilitates trust due to its institutions. We focus specifically on the link between the individual’s major news source and generalized trust depending on the political regime in the country. We use the World Values Survey (2011-2014) containing individual-level data on the sources of news and levels of trust in fifty-three countries around the world. We introduce both country-level and individual-level predictors of trust in order to test whether and how political regimes moderate the relationship between the major news source and generalized trust for those who consume news from television and/or the Internet. Preliminary results show that a non-democratic setting may decrease social trust both for those who prefer television and for those who prefer online news. We discuss this result critically within the discussion on trust and the Internet use as compared to traditional television news. This debate is important given the growing Internet penetration and political change in the developing countries and the debate on post-truth news in developed societies.
Sources of Political Regime Support: New Comparative Evidence from the World Values Survey
Dr Kseniya Kizilova (World Values Survey Association) - Presenting Author
Professor Christian Haerpfer (World Values Survey Association)
The resilience of political regimes, especially democracy, depends in good part on popular support. Analysts conceive and measure the sources of mass support for political regimes from various angles. Some analysts emphasize a society's basic political and cultural values; others draw attention to current citizen evaluations of regime performance; and still others study actual mass political behaviour. This paper will compare and contrast these different approaches with a view to deepening our understanding of political regime support. We are especially interested in exploring whether prevailing beliefs, attitudes and participation together form a coherent or contradictory set of resources for the consolidation of democracy. This paper examines also the current trends of popular support for democracy and alternative forms of political governance aiming to contribute to the ongoing debate on the crisis or democratic backlash.
Our theoretical framework is based on the concept of political support by Easton (1975) and its further development by Norris (1999; 2011), Klingemann (1999) and Dalton (2004). This conceptual lineage overlaps with the distinction between “realist” and “idealist” forms of political support by Rose, Mishler and Haerpfer (1998), as well as the distinction between “intrinsic” and “instrumental” support by Bratton and Matthes (2002) and Inglehart and Welzel (2005). The article therefore analyses support for democracy as a set of “idealist” principles as well as the “realist” support for the current regime functioning in the country. The paper considers also popular support for nondemocratic regimes.
Basing on the 30-years trends (WVS data for the period of 1981-2019 for 110 countries) of the dynamic of political support in Europe, Asia, Africa, Arab World and the Americas the paper will conclude whether the concept of “backsliding” is relevant to describe the present trends and whether the dynamics of popular support for democracy is universal or differs between the world regions.
Re-evaluation of Support for Democracy and Democratic Values in China: New Finding from WVS Wave 7
Professor Yang Zhong (Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Tennessee) - Presenting Author
As democracy is in retreat worldwide, what is the level of popular support for democracy and democratic values in China now? The paper draws findings from the newly conducted World Values Survey Wave 7 in China. The paper will focus on who are likely the supporters of democracy and democratic values and what factors affecting people’s support for democracy and democratic values in China. The study will also compare levels of Chinese popular support for democracy and democratic values from past WVS in China.
West vs. East, once again: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Postmaterialism in the US and East Asia
Professor Ming-Chang Tsai (Academia Sinica) - Presenting Author
It has been argued that an increasing trend of postmaterialism reflects cultural changes pertaining to intergenerational replacement. Both effects of social change and individual life course tend to be confounding with generational effects representing distinctive worldviews of certain cohorts. To effectively disentangle these influences of age, period and cohort is important for understanding how postmaterialism evolves in specific manners across societies. This study reanalyzes the data from four waves of World Values Survey (1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010) on the basis of a comprehensive 12-item scale of postmaterialism. By using the cross-classified random effect model, a newly developed technique to differentiate the A-P-C effects, the study provides a number of substantial findings. In the US, there is a trend of increasing postmaterialism overtime. However, those aged between 20-24 also show a belief in importance of economic security. The cohort of 1930, rather than the baby boomer generation, show stronger attitudinal support to postmaterialism. In three East Asian populations, a trend overtime is not observable. In South Korea, the generations of the 1960s and 1970s are less likely to embrace postmaterialism, yet neither Japan nor China have a similar pattern. Age difference is unsystematic in the three societies. And the youngest group in both South Korea and China even shows a lower level of postmaterialism. In comparison, education seems to be a key factor in breeding postmaterialism, although this association is not found in Japan. These findings altogether do not support a general theory of postmaterialism even for countries with similar income level like the US and Japan. Rather, the patterns and dynamics in mass belief for materialism or postmaterialism clearly differ between the West and East.