ESRA is listed as a registered charity and operates in accordance with its constitution, adopted on the 10th January 2013.
1. Adoption of the constitution
The association and its property will be administered and managed in
accordance with the provisions in Parts 1 and 2 of this constitution.
The association’s name is
European Survey Research Association
(and in this document it is called the charity).
The charity’s objects (‘the objects’) are
The advancement of education for the public benefit in the subject
of survey research in particular but not exclusively by holding
conferences, producing journals and other educational
material and by such other means as the trustees may determine
[Nothing in this constitution shall authorise an application of the
property of the charity for purposes which are not charitable in
accordance with section 7 of the Charities and Trustee Investment
(Scotland) Act 2005 and/or section 2 of the Charities Act (Northern
4. Application of income and property
(1) The income and property of the charity shall be applied solely
towards the promotion of the objects.
(a) A charity trustee is entitled to be reimbursed from the
property of the charity or may pay out of such property
reasonable expenses properly incurred by him or her
when acting on behalf of the charity.
(b) A charity trustee may benefit from trustee indemnity
insurance cover purchased at the charity’s expense in
accordance with, and subject to the conditions in, section
189 of the Charities Act 2011.
(2) None of the income or property of the charity may be paid
or transferred directly or indirectly by way of dividend bonus
or otherwise by way of profit to any member of the charity.
This does not prevent a member who is not also a trustee
(a) a benefit from the charity in the capacity of a beneficiary
of the charity;
(b) reasonable and proper remuneration for any goods or
services supplied to the charity.
5. Benefits and payments to charity trustees and
(1) General provisions
No charity trustee or connected person may:
(a) buy or receive any goods or services from the charity
on terms preferential to those applicable to members of
(b) sell goods, services or any interest in land to the charity;
(c) be employed by, or receive any remuneration from,
(d) receive any other financial benefit from the charity;
unless the payment is permitted by sub-clause (2) of this clause, or
authorised by the court or the Charity Commission (‘the Commission’).
In this clause, a ‘financial benefit’ means a benefit, direct or indirect,
which is either money or has a monetary value.
(2) Scope and powers permitting trustees’ or connected
(a) A charity trustee or connected person may receive a
benefit from the charity in the capacity of a beneficiary of
the charity provided that a majority of the trustees do not
benefit in this way.
(b) A charity trustee or connected person may enter into a
contract for the supply of services, or of goods that are
supplied in connection with the provision of services, to
the charity where that is permitted in accordance with,
and subject to the conditions in, section 185 of the
Charities Act 2011.
(c) Subject to sub-clause (3) of this clause a charity trustee
or connected person may provide the charity with goods
that are not supplied in connection with services provided
to the charity by the charity trustee or connected person.
(d) A charity trustee or connected person may receive interest
on money lent to the charity at a reasonable and proper
rate which must be not more than the Bank of England
bank rate (also known as the base rate).
(e) A charity trustee or connected person may receive rent
for premises let by the trustee or connected person to the
charity. The amount of the rent and the other terms of the
lease must be reasonable and proper. The charity trustee
concerned must withdraw from any meeting at which
such a proposal or the rent or other terms of the lease are
(f) A charity trustee or connected person may take part in
the normal trading and fundraising activities of the charity
on the same terms as members of the public.
(3) Payment for supply of goods only – controls
The charity and its charity trustees may only rely upon the authority
provided by sub-clause 2(c) of this clause if each of the following
conditions is satisfied:
(a) The amount or maximum amount of the payment for
the goods is set out in an agreement in writing between
the charity and the charity trustee or connected person
supplying the goods (‘the supplier’) under which the
supplier is to supply the goods in question to or on behalf
of the charity.
(b) The amount or maximum amount of the payment for
the goods does not exceed what is reasonable in the
circumstances for the supply of the goods in question.
(c) The other charity trustees are satisfied that it is in the
best interests of the charity to contract with the supplier
rather than with someone who is not a charity trustee or
connected person. In reaching that decision the charity
trustees must balance the advantage of contracting
with a charity trustee or connected person against the
disadvantages of doing so.
(d) The supplier is absent from the part of any meeting at
which there is discussion of the proposal to enter into a
contract or arrangement with him or her or it with regard
to the supply of goods to the charity.
(e) The supplier does not vote on any such matter and is not
to be counted when calculating whether a quorum of
charity trustees is present at the meeting.
(f) The reason for their decision is recorded by the charity
trustees in the minute book.
(g) A majority of the charity trustees then in office are not
in receipt of remuneration or payments authorised by
(4) In sub-clauses (2) and (3) of this clause:
(a) ‘the charity’ includes any company in which the charity:
(i) holds more than 50% of the shares; or
(ii) controls more than 50% of the voting rights
attached to the shares; or
(iii) has the right to appoint one or more trustees to the
board of the company.
(b) ‘connected person’ includes any person within the
definition set out in clause 34 (Interpretation).
(1) If the members resolve to dissolve the charity the trustees
will remain in office as charity trustees and be responsible
for winding up the affairs of the charity in accordance with
(2) The trustees must collect in all the assets of the charity and
must pay or make provision for all the liabilities of the charity.
(3) The trustees must apply any remaining property or money:
(a) directly for the objects;
(b) by transfer to any charity or charities for purposes the
same as or similar to the charity;
(c) in such other manner as the Charity Commission for
England and Wales (‘the Commission’) may approve in
writing in advance.
(4) The members may pass a resolution before or at the same time
as the resolution to dissolve the charity specifying the manner
in which the trustees are to apply the remaining property or
assets of the charity and the trustees must comply with the
resolution if it is consistent with paragraphs (a) – (c) inclusive in
sub-clause (3) above.
(5) In no circumstances shall the net assets of the charity be paid
to or distributed among the members of the charity (except to a
member that is itself a charity).
(6) The trustees must notify the Commission promptly that the
charity has been dissolved. If the trustees are obliged to send
the charity’s accounts to the Commission for the accounting
period which ended before its dissolution, they must send
the Commission the charity’s final accounts.
7. Amendment of constitution
(1) The charity may amend any provision contained in Part 1 of this
constitution provided that:
(a) no amendment may be made that would have the effect
of making the charity cease to be a charity at law;
(b) no amendment may be made to alter the objects if the
change would undermine or work against the previous
objects of the charity;
(c) no amendment may be made to clauses 4 or 5 without
the prior written consent of the Commission;
(d) any resolution to amend a provision of Part 1 of this
constitution is passed by not less than two thirds of the
members present and voting at a general meeting.
(2) Any provision contained in Part 2 of this constitution may be
amended, provided that any such amendment is made by
resolution passed by a simple majority of the members present
and voting at a general meeting.
(3) A copy of any resolution amending this constitution shall be sent
to the Commission within twenty one days of it being passed.
(1) Membership is open to individuals over eighteen or
organisations who are approved by the trustees.
(2) (a) The trustees may only refuse an application for
membership if, acting reasonably and properly, they
consider it to be in the best interests of the charity to
refuse the application.
(b) The trustees must inform the applicant in writing of
the reasons for the refusal within twenty-one days of
(c) The trustees must consider any written representations
the applicant may make about the decision. The trustees’
decision following any written representations must be
notified to the applicant in writing but shall be final.
(3) Membership is not transferable to anyone else.
(4) The trustees must keep a register of names and addresses of
the members which must be made available to any member
9. Termination of membership
Membership is terminated if:
(1) the member dies or, if it is an organisation, ceases to exist;
(2) the member resigns by written notice to the charity unless, after
the resignation, there would be less than two members;
(3) any sum due from the member to the charity is not paid in full
within six months of it falling due;
(4) the member is removed from membership by a resolution of
the trustees that it is in the best interests of the charity that
his or her membership is terminated. A resolution to remove a
member from membership may only be passed if:
(a) the member has been given at least twenty one days’
notice in writing of the meeting of the trustees at which
the resolution will be proposed and the reasons why it is
to be proposed;
(b) the member or, at the option of the member, the
member’s representative (who need not be a member of
the charity) has been allowed to make representations to
10. General meetings
(1) The charity must hold a general meeting within twelve months
of the date of the adoption of this constitution.
(2) A general meeting must be held biennially and
not more than twenty-four months may elapse between
successive general meetings.
(3) All general meetings other than annual general meetings shall
be called special general meetings.
(4) The trustees may call a special general meeting at any time.
(5) The trustees must call a special general meeting if requested
to do so in writing by at least ten members or one tenth of
the membership, which ever is the greater. The request must
state the nature of the business that is to be discussed. If the
trustees fail to hold the meeting within twenty-eight days of
the request, the members may proceed to call a special general
meeting but in doing so they must comply with the provisions
of this constitution.
(1) The minimum period of notice required to hold any general
meeting of the charity is fourteen clear days from the date on
which the notice is deemed to have been given.
(2) A general meeting may be called by shorter notice, if it is so
agreed by all the members entitled to attend and vote.
(3) The notice must specify the date, time and place of the meeting
and the general nature of the business to be transacted. If the
meeting is to be an annual general meeting, the notice must
(4) The notice must be given to all the members and to
(1) No business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a
quorum is present.
(2) A quorum is:
(a) 50 members entitled to vote upon the business to be
conducted at the meeting; or
(b) one tenth of the total membership at the time,
whichever is the greater.
(3) The authorised representative of a member organisation shall
be counted in the quorum.
(a) a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time
appointed for the meeting; or
(b) during a meeting a quorum ceases to be present,
the meeting shall be adjourned to such time and place as the
trustees shall determine.
(5) The trustees must re-convene the meeting and must give at
least seven clear days’ notice of the re-convened meeting
stating the date time and place of the meeting.
(6) If no quorum is present at the re-convened meeting within
fifteen minutes of the time specified for the start of the meeting
the members present at that time shall constitute the quorum
for that meeting.
(1) General meetings shall be chaired by the person who has been
elected as Chair.
(2) If there is no such person or he or she is not present within
fifteen minutes of the time appointed for the meeting a trustee
nominated by the trustees shall chair the meeting.
(3) If there is only one trustee present and willing to act, he or she
shall chair the meeting.
(4) If no trustee is present and willing to chair the meeting within
fifteen minutes after the time appointed for holding it, the
members present and entitled to vote must choose one of their
number to chair the meeting.
(1) The members present at a meeting may resolve that the
meeting shall be adjourned.
(2) The person who is chairing the meeting must decide the date
time and place at which meeting is to be re-convened unless
those details are specified in the resolution.
(3) No business shall be conducted at an adjourned meeting unless
it could properly have been conducted at the meeting had the
adjournment not taken place.
(4) If a meeting is adjourned by a resolution of the members for
more than seven days, at least seven clear days’ notice shall
be given of the re-convened meeting stating the date time and
place of the meeting.
(1) Each member shall have one vote but if there is an equality
of votes the person who is chairing the meeting shall have a
casting vote in addition to any other vote he or she may have.
(2) A resolution in writing signed by each member (or in the
case of a member that is an organisation, by its authorised
representative) who would have been entitled to vote upon it
had it been proposed at a general meeting shall be effective. It
may comprise several copies each signed by or on behalf of one
or more members.
16. Representatives of other bodies
(1) Any organisation that is a member of the charity may
nominate any person to act as its representative at any
meeting of the charity.
(2) The organisation must give written notice to the charity of the
name of its representative. The nominee shall not be entitled
to represent the organisation at any meeting unless the notice
has been received by the charity. The nominee may continue to
represent the organisation until written notice to the contrary is
received by the charity.
(3) Any notice given to the charity will be conclusive evidence that
the nominee is entitled to represent the organisation or that
his or her authority has been revoked. The charity shall not be
required to consider whether the nominee has been properly
appointed by the organisation.
17. Officers and trustees
(1) The charity and its property shall be managed and administered
by a committee comprising the officers and other members
elected in accordance with this constitution. The officers and
other members of the committee shall be the trustees of the
Charity and in this constitution are together called ‘the trustees’.
2) The charity shall have the following officers:
(a) A chair,
(b) A secretary,
(c) A treasurer.
(3) A trustee must be a member of the charity or the nominated
representative of an organisation that is a member of
(4) No one may be appointed a trustee if he or she would be
disqualified from acting under the provisions of clause 20.
(5) The number of trustees shall be not less than three but (unless
otherwise determined by a resolution of the charity in general
meeting) shall not be subject to any maximum.
(6) The first trustees (including officers) shall be those persons
elected as trustees and officers at the meeting at which this
constitution is adopted.
(7) A trustee may not appoint anyone to act on his or her behalf at
meetings of the trustees.
18. Appointment of trustees
(1) The charity in general meeting shall elect the officers and the
(2) The trustees may appoint any person who is willing to act as a
trustee. Subject to sub-clause 5(b) of this clause, they may also
appoint trustees to act as officers.
(3) Each of the trustees shall retire with effect from the conclusion
of the annual general meeting next after his or her
appointment but shall be eligible for re-election at that
annual general meeting.
(4) No-one may be elected a trustee or an officer at any annual
general meeting unless prior to the meeting the charity is given
a notice that:
(a) is signed by a member entitled to vote at the meeting;
(b) states the member’s intention to propose the
appointment of a person as a trustee or as an officer;
(c) is signed by the person who is to be proposed to show his
or her willingness to be appointed.
(5) (a) The appointment of a trustee, whether by the charity
in general meeting or by the other trustees, must not
cause the number of trustees to exceed any number fixed
in accordance with this constitution as the maximum
number of trustees.
(b) The trustees may not appoint a person to be an officer if
a person has already been elected or appointed to that
office and has not vacated the office.
19. Powers of trustees
(1) The trustees must manage the business of the charity and have
the following powers in order to further the objects (but not for
any other purpose):
(a) to raise funds. In doing so, the trustees must not
undertake any taxable permanent trading activity and
must comply with any relevant statutory regulations;
(b) to buy, take on lease or in exchange, hire or otherwise
acquire any property and to maintain and equip it for use;
(c) to sell, lease or otherwise dispose of all or any part of the
property belonging to the charity. In exercising this power,
the trustees must comply as appropriate with sections 117
- 122 of the Charities Act 2011;
(d) to borrow money and to charge the whole or any part
of the property belonging to the charity as security for
repayment of the money borrowed. The trustees must
comply as appropriate with sections 124 - 126 of the
Charities Act 2011,if they intend to mortgage land;
(e) to co-operate with other charities, voluntary bodies and
statutory authorities and to exchange information and
advice with them;
(f) to establish or support any charitable trusts, associations
or institutions formed for any of the charitable purposes
included in the objects;
(g) to acquire, merge with or enter into any partnership or
joint venture arrangement with any other charity formed
for any of the objects;
(h) to set aside income as a reserve against future
expenditure but only in accordance with a written policy
(i) to obtain and pay for such goods and services as are
necessary for carrying out the work of the charity;
(j) to open and operate such bank and other accounts as the
trustees consider necessary and to invest funds and to
delegate the management of funds in the same manner
and subject to the same conditions as the trustees of a
trust are permitted to do by the Trustee Act 2000;
(k) to do all such other lawful things as are necessary for the
achievement of the objects.
(2) No alteration of this constitution or any special resolution
shall have retrospective effect to invalidate any prior act of
(3) Any meeting of trustees at which a quorum is present at the
time the relevant decision is made may exercise all the powers
exercisable by the trustees.
20. Disqualification and removal of trustees
A trustee shall cease to hold office if he or she:
(1) is disqualified from acting as a trustee by virtue of sections 178
and 179 of the Charities Act 2011 (or any statutory re-enactment
or modification of that provision);
(2) ceases to be a member of the charity;
(3) becomes incapable by reason of mental disorder, illness or
injury of managing and administering his or her own affairs;
(4) resigns as a trustee by notice to the charity (but only if at least
two trustees will remain in office when the notice of resignation
is to take effect); or
(5) is absent without the permission of the trustees from all their
meetings held within a period of six consecutive months and
the trustees resolve that his or her office be vacated.
21. Proceedings of trustees
(1) The trustees may regulate their proceedings as they think fit,
subject to the provisions of this constitution.
(2) Any trustee may call a meeting of the trustees.
(3) The secretary must call a meeting of the trustees if requested
to do so by a trustee.
(4) Questions arising at a meeting must be decided by a majority
(5) In the case of an equality of votes, the person who chairs the
meeting shall have a second or casting vote.
(6) No decision may be made by a meeting of the trustees unless
a quorum is present at the time the decision is purported to
(7) The quorum shall be two or the number nearest to one-third
of the total number of trustees, whichever is the greater or
such larger number as may be decided from time to time by
(8) A trustee shall not be counted in the quorum present when any
decision is made about a matter upon which that trustee is not
entitled to vote.
(9) If the number of trustees is less than the number fixed as the
quorum, the continuing trustees or trustee may act only for the
purpose of filling vacancies or of calling a general meeting.
(10) The person elected as the Chair shall chair meetings of
(11) If the Chair is unwilling to preside or is not present within ten
minutes after the time appointed for the meeting, the trustees
present may appoint one of their number to chair that meeting.
(12) The person appointed to chair meetings of the trustees
shall have no functions or powers except those conferred
by this constitution or delegated to him or her in writing by
(13) A resolution in writing signed by all the trustees entitled to
receive notice of a meeting of trustees or of a committee of
trustees and to vote upon the resolution shall be as valid and
effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the trustees
or (as the case may be) a committee of trustees duly convened
(14) The resolution in writing may comprise several documents
containing the text of the resolution in like form each signed by
one or more trustees.
22. Conflicts of interests and conflicts of loyalties
A charity trustee must:
(1) declare the nature and extent of any interest, direct or indirect,
which he or she has in a proposed transaction or arrangement
with the charity or in any transaction or arrangement entered
into by the charity which has not been previously declared; and
(2) absent himself or herself from any discussions of the charity
trustees in which it is possible that a conflict will arise between
his or her duty to act solely in the interests of the charity and
any personal interest (including but not limited to any personal
Any charity trustee absenting himself or herself from any discussions in
accordance with this clause must not vote or be counted as part of the
quorum in any decision of the charity trustees on the matter.
23. Saving provisions
(1) Subject to sub-clause (2) of this clause, all decisions of the
charity trustees, or of a committee of the charity trustees, shall
be valid notwithstanding the participation in any vote of a
(a) who is disqualified from holding office;
(b) who had previously retired or who had been obliged by this
constitution to vacate office;
(c) who was not entitled to vote on the matter, whether by reason
of a conflict of interests or otherwise;
if, without the vote of that charity trustee and that charity trustee being
counted in the quorum, the decision has been made by a majority of
the charity trustees at a quorate meeting.
(2) Sub-clause (1) of this clause does not permit a charity trustee
to keep any benefit that may be conferred upon him or her by
a resolution of the charity trustees or of a committee of charity
trustees if, but for sub-clause (1), the resolution would have
been void, or if the charity trustee has not complied with clause
22 (Conflicts of interests and conflicts of loyalties).
(1) The trustees may delegate any of their powers or functions to
a committee of two or more trustees but the terms of any such
delegation must be recorded in the minute book.
(2) The trustees may impose conditions when delegating, including
the conditions that:
(a) the relevant powers are to be exercised exclusively by the
committee to whom they delegate;
(b) no expenditure may be incurred on behalf of the charity
except in accordance with a budget previously agreed
with the trustees.
(3) The trustees may revoke or alter a delegation.
(4) All acts and proceedings of any committees must be fully and
promptly reported to the trustees.
25. Irregularities in proceedings
(1) Subject to sub-clause (2) of this clause, all acts done by a
meeting of Trustees, or of a committee of trustees, shall be valid
notwithstanding the participation in any vote of a trustee:
(a) who was disqualified from holding office;
(b) who had previously retired or who had been obliged by
the constitution to vacate office;
(c) who was not entitled to vote on the matter, whether by
reason of a conflict of interests or otherwise;
(d) the vote of that trustee; and
(e) that trustee being counted in the quorum,
the decision has been made by a majority of the trustees at a
(2) Sub-clause (1) of this clause does not permit a trustee to
keep any benefit that may be conferred upon him or her by a
resolution of the trustees or of a committee of trustees if the
resolution would otherwise have been void.
(3) No resolution or act of
(a) the trustees
(b) any committee of the trustees
(c) the charity in general meeting
shall be invalidated by reason of the failure to give notice to
any trustee or member or by reason of any procedural defect
in the meeting unless it is shown that the failure or defect
has materially prejudiced a member or the beneficiaries of
The trustees must keep minutes of all:
(1) appointments of officers and trustees made by the trustees;
(2) proceedings at meetings of the charity;
(3) meetings of the trustees and committees of trustees including:
(a) the names of the trustees present at the meeting;
(b) the decisions made at the meetings; and
(c) where appropriate the reasons for the decisions.
27. Accounts, Annual Report, Annual Return
(1) The trustees must comply with their obligations under the
Charities Act 2011 with regard to:
(a) the keeping of accounting records for the charity;
(b) the preparation of annual statements of account for
(c) the transmission of the statements of account to
(d) the preparation of an Annual Report and its transmission
to the Commission;
(e) the preparation of an Annual Return and its transmission
to the Commission.
(2) Accounts must be prepared in accordance with the provisions
of any Statement of Recommended Practice issued by the
Commission, unless the trustees are required to prepare
accounts in accordance with the provisions of such a Statement
prepared by another body.
28. Registered particulars
The trustees must notify the Commission promptly of any changes to
the charity’s entry on the Central Register of Charities.
(1) The trustees must ensure the title to:
(a) all land held by or in trust for the charity that is not vested
in the Official Custodian of Charities; and
(b) all investments held by or on behalf of the charity, is
vested either in a corporation entitled to act as custodian
trustee or in not less than three individuals appointed by
them as holding trustees.
(2) The terms of the appointment of any holding trustees must
provide that they may act only in accordance with lawful
directions of the trustees and that if they do so they will not
be liable for the acts and defaults of the trustees or of the
members of the charity.
(3) The trustees may remove the holding trustees at any time.
30. Repair and insurance
The trustees must keep in repair and insure to their full value against
fire and other usual risks all the buildings of the charity (except those
buildings that are required to be kept in repair and insured by a
tenant). They must also insure suitably in respect of public liability and
(1) Any notice required by this constitution to be given to or by any
person must be:
(a) in writing; or
(b) given using electronic communications.
(2) The charity may give any notice to a member either:
(a) personally; or
(b) by sending it by post in a prepaid envelope addressed to
the member at his or her address; or
(c) by leaving it at the address of the member; or
(d) by giving it using electronic communications to the
(3) A member who does not register an address with the charity
or who registers only a postal address that is not within the
United Kingdom shall not be entitled to receive any notice from
(4) A member present in person at any meeting of the charity shall
be deemed to have received notice of the meeting and of the
purposes for which it was called.
(5) (a) Proof that an envelope containing a notice was properly
addressed, prepaid and posted shall be conclusive
evidence that the notice was given.
(b) Proof that a notice contained in an electronic
communication was sent in accordance with guidance
issued by the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and
Administrators shall be conclusive evidence that the
notice was given.
(c) A notice shall be deemed to be given 48 hours after the
envelope containing it was posted or, in the case of an
electronic communication, 48 hours after it was sent.
(1) The trustees may from time to time make rules or bye-laws for
the conduct of their business.
(2) The bye-laws may regulate the following matters but are not
restricted to them:
(a) the admission of members of the charity (including the
admission of organisations to membership) and the
rights and privileges of such members, and the entrance
fees, subscriptions and other fees or payments to be
made by members;
(b) the conduct of members of the charity in relation to one
another, and to the charity’s employees and volunteers;
(c) the setting aside of the whole or any part or parts of the
charity’s premises at any particular time or times or for
any particular purpose or purposes;
(d) the procedure at general meeting and meetings of the
trustees in so far as such procedure is not regulated by
(e) the keeping and authenticating of records. (If regulations
made under this clause permit records of the charity to
be kept in electronic form and requires a trustee
to sign the record, the regulations must specify a
method of recording the signature that enables it to
be properly authenticated.)
(f) generally, all such matters as are commonly the subject
matter of the rules of an unincorporated association.
(3) The charity in general meeting has the power to alter, add to or
repeal the rules or bye-laws.
(4) The trustees must adopt such means as they think sufficient
to bring the rules and bye-laws to the notice of members of
(5) The rules or bye-laws shall be binding on all members of the
charity. No rule or bye-law shall be inconsistent with, or shall
affect or repeal anything contained in, this constitution.
If a dispute arises between members of the charity about the validity or
propriety of anything done by the members under this constitution, and
the dispute cannot be resolved by agreement, the parties to the dispute
must first try in good faith to settle the dispute by mediation before
resorting to litigation.
In this constitution ‘connected person’ means:
(1) a child, parent, grandchild, grandparent, brother or sister of
(2) the spouse or civil partner of the trustee or of any person falling
within sub-clause (1) above;
(3) a person carrying on business in partnership with the trustee or
with any person falling within sub-clause (1) or (2) above;
(4) an institution which is controlled –
(a) by the trustee or any connected person falling within
sub-clause (1), (2), or (3) above; or
(b) by two or more persons falling within sub-clause (4)(a),
when taken together
(5) a body corporate in which –
(a) the charity trustee or any connected person falling within
sub-clauses (1) to (3) has a substantial interest; or
(b) two or more persons falling within sub-clause (5)(a) who,
when taken together, have a substantial interest.
(6) Sections 350 – 352 of the Charities Act 2011 apply for the
purposes of interpreting the terms used in this clause