ESRA 2013 Sessions

Advances in measurement of egocentered networksDr Tina Kogovsek
Social network analysis has, especially in the last decade, become increasingly popular and relevant in different substantive fields, such as sociology, political studies, organizational studies and many others. There is also a vast array of studies on statistical methods of social network analysis. On the other hand, studies on different social network measurement issues are still relatively rare. It is very important to know, what kind of data are obtained by different measurement methods and what is their quality. Therefore, this session invites papers addressing advanced issues regarding egocentered network measurement. This includes:
- comparisons of data collection modes (e.g, web, telephone, personal surveys),
- new measurement techniques and instruments (e.g., name generators, role generators, visual data collection techniques),
- data quality issues (e.g., reliability, validity, accuracy, MTMM designs), and
- experiences with mixed methods designs (e.g., combining qualitative and quantitative data collection methods),
Meta analyses summarizing and advancing state of the art knowledge, such as comparisons of different effects (e.g., data collection method, using limitations, question wording) on data quality estimates are also welcome.


Advancing the field of questionnaire translation - identifying problems, discussing methods, pushing the research agenda. A tribute to Janet Harkness 1Dr Dorothee Behr
Questionnaire translation is a crucial aspect when it comes to collecting comparable survey data in different countries or among different language groups. In the widest sense, translation should ensure the implementation of 'equivalent' instruments, in different linguistic, cultural and institutional settings.

The quest for equivalence already starts at the questionnaire development stage, in which advance translation can already contribute to a more 'translatable' source questionnaire. It continues in the translation stage through procedures - such as using multiple translators with varying skills and providing them with extensive information and task specification. In the review or assessment stage, committee assessments have been argued to contribute to questionnaire equivalence, more so than the use of 'back translation' which was common practice in many multi-lingual surveys in the past. Pretesting and documentation should round off all these translation procedures (e.g., Harkness 2003).

We invite papers on all aspects related to questionnaire translation. The papers may address more specific (e.g. pertaining to a particular language combination or translation issue) or more general translation issues (e.g., pertaining to scale translation) to draw attention to where problems are located. The papers may also deal with the role of translation in source text development (e.g., advance translation). The papers may equally focus on how challenges are met in terms of methodology (e.g., translation and assessment methods) or software (e.g., translation tools). Last but not least, papers are encouraged which push the research agenda and provide deeper insights into what exactly a good and comparable survey translation is (e.g., effects of different survey translations on the data; translation vs. adaptation; different communication styles across cultures and their translation/adaptation; the notion of "equivalence" itself).


Advancing the field of questionnaire translation - identifying problems, discussing methods, pushing the research agenda. A tribute to Janet Harkness 2Dr Dorothee Behr
Questionnaire translation is a crucial aspect when it comes to collecting comparable survey data in different countries or among different language groups. In the widest sense, translation should ensure the implementation of 'equivalent' instruments, in different linguistic, cultural and institutional settings.

The quest for equivalence already starts at the questionnaire development stage, in which advance translation can already contribute to a more 'translatable' source questionnaire. It continues in the translation stage through procedures - such as using multiple translators with varying skills and providing them with extensive information and task specification. In the review or assessment stage, committee assessments have been argued to contribute to questionnaire equivalence, more so than the use of 'back translation' which was common practice in many multi-lingual surveys in the past. Pretesting and documentation should round off all these translation procedures (e.g., Harkness 2003).

We invite papers on all aspects related to questionnaire translation. The papers may address more specific (e.g. pertaining to a particular language combination or translation issue) or more general translation issues (e.g., pertaining to scale translation) to draw attention to where problems are located. The papers may also deal with the role of translation in source text development (e.g., advance translation). The papers may equally focus on how challenges are met in terms of methodology (e.g., translation and assessment methods) or software (e.g., translation tools). Last but not least, papers are encouraged which push the research agenda and provide deeper insights into what exactly a good and comparable survey translation is (e.g., effects of different survey translations on the data; translation vs. adaptation; different communication styles across cultures and their translation/adaptation; the notion of "equivalence" itself).


Advancing the field of questionnaire translation - identifying problems, discussing methods, pushing the research agenda. A tribute to Janet Harkness 3Dr Dorothee Behr
Questionnaire translation is a crucial aspect when it comes to collecting comparable survey data in different countries or among different language groups. In the widest sense, translation should ensure the implementation of 'equivalent' instruments, in different linguistic, cultural and institutional settings.

The quest for equivalence already starts at the questionnaire development stage, in which advance translation can already contribute to a more 'translatable' source questionnaire. It continues in the translation stage through procedures - such as using multiple translators with varying skills and providing them with extensive information and task specification. In the review or assessment stage, committee assessments have been argued to contribute to questionnaire equivalence, more so than the use of 'back translation' which was common practice in many multi-lingual surveys in the past. Pretesting and documentation should round off all these translation procedures (e.g., Harkness 2003).

We invite papers on all aspects related to questionnaire translation. The papers may address more specific (e.g. pertaining to a particular language combination or translation issue) or more general translation issues (e.g., pertaining to scale translation) to draw attention to where problems are located. The papers may also deal with the role of translation in source text development (e.g., advance translation). The papers may equally focus on how challenges are met in terms of methodology (e.g., translation and assessment methods) or software (e.g., translation tools). Last but not least, papers are encouraged which push the research agenda and provide deeper insights into what exactly a good and comparable survey translation is (e.g., effects of different survey translations on the data; translation vs. adaptation; different communication styles across cultures and their translation/adaptation; the notion of "equivalence" itself).


Cognition in surveys 1Dr Naomi Kamoen
Cognitive research in surveys covers a wide range of approaches. In recent years, various models describing the cognitive processes underlying question answering in standardized surveys have been proposed. A lot of research is guided by the model of question answering by Tourangeau, Rips and Rasinski (2000). This model distinguishes four stages in question answering: (1) comprehension of the question, (2) retrieval of information, (3) deriving a judgement, and (4) formulating a response. In addition, there are dual-process models, such as the satisficing model proposed by Krosnick (1991). In this model, two groups of respondents are distinguished: those who satisfice, and try to do just enough to give a plausible answer versus those who optimize, and do their best to give a good answer.
Cognitive models such as the two described above, have many applications. For example, they help in understanding what is measured when administering surveys, and they provide a point of departure in explaining the wide range of method effects survey researchers observe. Also, cognitive theory in surveys is used by psychologists, linguists and other scholars to obtain a deeper understanding of, for example, language processing, the nature of attitudes, and memory.
Recently, cognitive approaches are not only used to describe processes of attitude measurement, but also to describe the ways attitudes are formed using standardized surveys. In this type of research, so-called 'decision aids', such as Voting Advice Applications, are studied. How do design choices in these decision aids affect users' answers, attitudes and behavioral intentions?
We cordially invite researchers addressing one or more of these topics to submit their papers to this session.

Collecting and Analysing Physical Measure and Biomarker Data in SurveysDr Roberto Lillini


Collecting and Analysing Physical Measure and Biomarker Data in SurveysDr Stephanie McFall


Collection and analysis of biological data in health surveys: developing best practice 1Miss Samantha Clemens
Biological measures can add a lot to survey data, enabling us to find out things about participants that cannot be collected through survey questions. These biomeasures encompass a range of biological, anthropometric, functional, and sensory measurements. Examples are height, weight or blood pressure. There have been innovative developments in the collection of biomeasures for example in the study of epigenectics. Integrating biomeasures into surveys has great potential including the estimation of prevalence of disease in a non-clinical population, the detection of undiagnosed conditions, and provision of objective measures compared with self-reported measures.

The collection of biomeasures often involves the development of detailed protocols about when, where, how and by whom the measurements can be taken to ensure that the resulting data are of good quality. Measures may be carried out in participants' homes or at a clinic and they may be collected by a survey interviewer or a trained medical specialist. Often, multiple approaches are used taking into consideration the requirements of the study, measures of interest, cost, and demographics of the study population. Researchers must consider the implications of taking biomeasures at every stage of the survey including ethical implications and the impact on training, pretesting, data collection, data quality, sample shipment, informed consent and response rates.

This session aims to share best practice and explore challenges in collecting biological data in health surveys. We invite papers which describe (but need not be restricted to) the following related to health surveys with biological measurements:
1. Innovations in collecting and analysing biomeasures
2. The design of protocols for complex biomeasures
3. Evaluations of using different protocols
4. Collecting biomeasures for special populations
5. Using biomeasures to validate self-reported health measurements
6. Applying biomeasures for the analysis of social gradients in health and cross-country comparisons in health

Collection and analysis of biological data in health surveys: developing best practice 2Miss Samantha Clemens
Biological measures can add a lot to survey data, enabling us to find out things about participants that cannot be collected through survey questions. These biomeasures encompass a range of biological, anthropometric, functional, and sensory measurements. Examples are height, weight or blood pressure. There have been innovative developments in the collection of biomeasures for example in the study of epigenectics. Integrating biomeasures into surveys has great potential including the estimation of prevalence of disease in a non-clinical population, the detection of undiagnosed conditions, and provision of objective measures compared with self-reported measures.

The collection of biomeasures often involves the development of detailed protocols about when, where, how and by whom the measurements can be taken to ensure that the resulting data are of good quality. Measures may be carried out in participants' homes or at a clinic and they may be collected by a survey interviewer or a trained medical specialist. Often, multiple approaches are used taking into consideration the requirements of the study, measures of interest, cost, and demographics of the study population. Researchers must consider the implications of taking biomeasures at every stage of the survey including ethical implications and the impact on training, pretesting, data collection, data quality, sample shipment, informed consent and response rates.

This session aims to share best practice and explore challenges in collecting biological data in health surveys. We invite papers which describe (but need not be restricted to) the following related to health surveys with biological measurements:
1. Innovations in collecting and analysing biomeasures
2. The design of protocols for complex biomeasures
3. Evaluations of using different protocols
4. Collecting biomeasures for special populations
5. Using biomeasures to validate self-reported health measurements
6. Applying biomeasures for the analysis of social gradients in health and cross-country comparisons in health

Construction of Response Scales in Questionnaires 1Dr Natalja Menold
Researchers are invited to submit papers dealing with the design of response scales for questions/items to measure opinions or behaviour in surveys. The papers could include questions about several design aspects of response scales such as number of categories, middle category, unipolar or bipolar scales, numerical and/or verbal labels, ascending or descending order of categories or the scale's visual design. However, of interest are the effects of several design aspects on respondents' responses as well as on data reliability and validity. In addition, effects of cognitional or motivational factors could be focus of the studies. Also, specifics in design of response scales in different survey modes, their comparability in mixed mode surveys as well as their intercultural comparability are further topics of interest.

Construction of Response Scales in Questionnaires 2Dr Natalja Menold
Researchers are invited to submit papers dealing with the design of response scales for questions/items to measure opinions or behaviour in surveys. The papers could include questions about several design aspects of response scales such as number of categories, middle category, unipolar or bipolar scales, numerical and/or verbal labels, ascending or descending order of categories or the scale's visual design. However, of interest are the effects of several design aspects on respondents' responses as well as on data reliability and validity. In addition, effects of cognitional or motivational factors could be focus of the studies. Also, specifics in design of response scales in different survey modes, their comparability in mixed mode surveys as well as their intercultural comparability are further topics of interest.

Construction of Response Scales in Questionnaires 3Dr Natalja Menold
Researchers are invited to submit papers dealing with the design of response scales for questions/items to measure opinions or behaviour in surveys. The papers could include questions about several design aspects of response scales such as number of categories, middle category, unipolar or bipolar scales, numerical and/or verbal labels, ascending or descending order of categories or the scale's visual design. However, of interest are the effects of several design aspects on respondents' responses as well as on data reliability and validity. In addition, effects of cognitional or motivational factors could be focus of the studies. Also, specifics in design of response scales in different survey modes, their comparability in mixed mode surveys as well as their intercultural comparability are further topics of interest.

Data Collection and Analysis - OtherMs Margarida Albuquerque


Envisioning the "survey" of the future: the role of smartphones and other technologies in advancing the practice of survey research 1Miss Femke De Keulenaer
Technological developments, such as the rise of social media, the smartphone, voice recognition and eye-tracking, combined with an explosion in the kinds of data being harvested from the Internet means that what survey researchers now have to work with as "raw data" is very different from 10 years ago.

The focus of this session is the role that technology plays in advancing the practice of survey research; topics could include, but are not limited to the following areas:

- Nowadays, people communicate with each other using various media, such as smartphones, mobile instant messaging, blogs, picture-sharing, wall-postings etc. Individuals' communication media of choice, however, are extremely diverse among different population groups; how can survey researchers accommodate these preferences when collecting information?

- Combining and analysing multiple sources of data with survey data, particularly where "unconventional" data are collected such as smartphone data, geospatial data, mobile instant messaging data, pictures or other attachments contributed by survey respondents.

- Experiences in making data collected via mobile behavioural apps, eye-tracking and facial expression devices etc. relevant and viable as data sources for research. How can this type of data be collected and analysed in the framework of population-based experiments?

- Another promising application of technology is as a direct assistant to the interviewer. Experiences in using portable devices to display maps and geospatial information, and ways to simplify mobile entry of data and access to information for the interviewer (such as by using speech commands etc.).

4th organizer: Dr. Eric Harrison, Eric.Harrison.2@city.ac.uk, City University

Envisioning the "survey" of the future: the role of smartphones and other technologies in advancing the practice of survey research 2Miss Femke De Keulenaer
Technological developments, such as the rise of social media, the smartphone, voice recognition and eye-tracking, combined with an explosion in the kinds of data being harvested from the Internet means that what survey researchers now have to work with as "raw data" is very different from 10 years ago.

The focus of this session is the role that technology plays in advancing the practice of survey research; topics could include, but are not limited to the following areas:

- Nowadays, people communicate with each other using various media, such as smartphones, mobile instant messaging, blogs, picture-sharing, wall-postings etc. Individuals' communication media of choice, however, are extremely diverse among different population groups; how can survey researchers accommodate these preferences when collecting information?

- Combining and analysing multiple sources of data with survey data, particularly where "unconventional" data are collected such as smartphone data, geospatial data, mobile instant messaging data, pictures or other attachments contributed by survey respondents.

- Experiences in making data collected via mobile behavioural apps, eye-tracking and facial expression devices etc. relevant and viable as data sources for research. How can this type of data be collected and analysed in the framework of population-based experiments?

- Another promising application of technology is as a direct assistant to the interviewer. Experiences in using portable devices to display maps and geospatial information, and ways to simplify mobile entry of data and access to information for the interviewer (such as by using speech commands etc.).

4th organizer: Dr. Eric Harrison, Eric.Harrison.2@city.ac.uk, City University

Errors in social networks research designsDr Anja Znidarsic
Social network data can be gathered in different ways where questionnaires, interviews, observations, archival records, and experiments could be used. Despite of the variety of network data collection techniques data are most frequently gathered by surveys. All methods have the potential to introduce different types of errors. Errors in the research design could be classified into three main categories: boundary specification problem, design of questionnaire and errors caused by actors. Boundary specification problem concerns rules of inclusion of actors in the network and consequently the problem of missing actors. Questionnaire format can be a source of errors due to fixed or free choice design format, recognition (where a complete list of units is used) or recall method, and direction of questions (e.g. measuring of providing or receiving social support). Errors in the third category are caused by actors: non-response of actors, non-response on particular tie(s) and measurement errors.

it is important to recognize the sources of errors in the research designs, to understand how certain types of errors can be reduced, and to assess the impact of errors on the results obtained with known tools in social network analysis.


Explanatory and independent variables in social surveys across countries 1Dr Uwe Warner
This session deals with the national standardization and the international harmonization of explanatory and independent variables in social surveys.
National standards for socio-demographic variables allow to compare surveys with other national survey data from official statistics, market and academic research. This is of importance because data from official statistics are often used to describe the quality of social survey outcomes.
International harmonization of background variables allows the comparison of survey data across countries.
For this session we welcome contributions on
- theories about the comparative approach in survey methodology in particular during the data collection,
- the strength and weakness of standardization on national and the harmonization on international level,
- the "best practice" to make social and demographic variables in register data comparable across countries,
- new and innovative measurements of explanatory and independent variables in social surveys,
- ongoing research discussing the explanatory power of social-demographic background variables in comparative surveys,
- studies exploring the total survey error and the measurement quality of independent variables in international surveys,
- and other topics on national standards and international harmonization of survey measurements.

Explanatory and independent variables in social surveys across countries 2Dr Uwe Warner
This session deals with the national standardization and the international harmonization of explanatory and independent variables in social surveys.
National standards for socio-demographic variables allow to compare surveys with other national survey data from official statistics, market and academic research. This is of importance because data from official statistics are often used to describe the quality of social survey outcomes.
International harmonization of background variables allows the comparison of survey data across countries.
For this session we welcome contributions on
- theories about the comparative approach in survey methodology in particular during the data collection,
- the strength and weakness of standardization on national and the harmonization on international level,
- the "best practice" to make social and demographic variables in register data comparable across countries,
- new and innovative measurements of explanatory and independent variables in social surveys,
- ongoing research discussing the explanatory power of social-demographic background variables in comparative surveys,
- studies exploring the total survey error and the measurement quality of independent variables in international surveys,
- and other topics on national standards and international harmonization of survey measurements.

Language-related aspects of surveys Dr Isabelle Renschler
There is increasing recognition that language-related factors can interfere with survey work in variety of ways, and can affect data quality. While survey translation already has an established research tradition, for this session we invite papers on other language-related aspects of surveys, especially in cross-cultural or cross-linguistic contexts. The papers may address issues related to conducting surveys in multilingual settings within and across countries, such as: barriers to survey participation for linguistic minorities (reaching them, establishing contact, getting cooperation); the use of proxies for those who do not speak the survey language; the costs and benefits of using non-majority languages for first contacts with linguistic minorities; the payoff of providing questionnaires for linguistic minorities in their mother tongue (given the costs of translation); comprehension of survey questions among foreign populations. Papers may focus on methodological challenges regarding language, but also on practical solutions in the field. Also invited are papers that address sociolinguistic aspects of survey interviews across cultures or subgroups, such as: levels of formality; dialect variation; on-the-fly adaptation and departures from standardisation; discourse norms (e.g., forms of personal address across cultures, encoding forms of politeness in scripted questionnaires).

Mixed Methods in Migration Research: Challenges, Innovations and Applications 1Dr Rossalina Latcheva
The pleas for improvement in the quality and quantity of the data available for the study of migration are not new. In 2009, the expert group of the Centre for Global Development even specified a handful of practical and politically feasible priority actions that could be taken by institutions to greatly expand the availability, quality and quantity of the information about the movement of populations across the globe. What is new is the beginning of an intensified methodological debate on the necessity of interdisciplinary or mixed methods approaches and methodological innovations in migration research. This becomes visible in increasing publishing activities such as the release of edited books (e.g. "Handbook of Research Methods in Migration" in 2012) or of special issues in peer-reviewed journals dealing with issues of migration and the combination of methods necessary to catch its complexity. Well-known migration scholars, economists, social geographers and scholars in transnational studies persuasively show that in order to build more holistic and comprehensive approach to the study of migration we require more sophisticated and broadly conceived sets of methods grounded in an interdisciplinary framework, i.e. the complexities and nuances of transnational lives require triangulating research.

The aim of the proposed session is to bring together researchers that try to overcome the weaknesses of more traditional approaches to migration by relying on multiple instruments and methods for analysing populations different to define, catch and follow, and which are marked by multiple and shifting identities. Since the use of mixed methods may cause tensions and faces its specific challenges, the exchange of knowledge and experiences during the conference are of particular importance. The session organizer is going to make efforts to (co)edit successful contributions and make suggestions for a special issue in e.g. Journal of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed Methods in Migration Research: Challenges, Innovations and Applications 2Dr Rossalina Latcheva
The pleas for improvement in the quality and quantity of the data available for the study of migration are not new. In 2009, the expert group of the Centre for Global Development even specified a handful of practical and politically feasible priority actions that could be taken by institutions to greatly expand the availability, quality and quantity of the information about the movement of populations across the globe. What is new is the beginning of an intensified methodological debate on the necessity of interdisciplinary or mixed methods approaches and methodological innovations in migration research. This becomes visible in increasing publishing activities such as the release of edited books (e.g. "Handbook of Research Methods in Migration" in 2012) or of special issues in peer-reviewed journals dealing with issues of migration and the combination of methods necessary to catch its complexity. Well-known migration scholars, economists, social geographers and scholars in transnational studies persuasively show that in order to build more holistic and comprehensive approach to the study of migration we require more sophisticated and broadly conceived sets of methods grounded in an interdisciplinary framework, i.e. the complexities and nuances of transnational lives require triangulating research.

The aim of the proposed session is to bring together researchers that try to overcome the weaknesses of more traditional approaches to migration by relying on multiple instruments and methods for analysing populations different to define, catch and follow, and which are marked by multiple and shifting identities. Since the use of mixed methods may cause tensions and faces its specific challenges, the exchange of knowledge and experiences during the conference are of particular importance. The session organizer is going to make efforts to (co)edit successful contributions and make suggestions for a special issue in e.g. Journal of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed Methods in Migration Research: Challenges, Innovations and Applications 3Dr Rossalina Latcheva
The pleas for improvement in the quality and quantity of the data available for the study of migration are not new. In 2009, the expert group of the Centre for Global Development even specified a handful of practical and politically feasible priority actions that could be taken by institutions to greatly expand the availability, quality and quantity of the information about the movement of populations across the globe. What is new is the beginning of an intensified methodological debate on the necessity of interdisciplinary or mixed methods approaches and methodological innovations in migration research. This becomes visible in increasing publishing activities such as the release of edited books (e.g. "Handbook of Research Methods in Migration" in 2012) or of special issues in peer-reviewed journals dealing with issues of migration and the combination of methods necessary to catch its complexity. Well-known migration scholars, economists, social geographers and scholars in transnational studies persuasively show that in order to build more holistic and comprehensive approach to the study of migration we require more sophisticated and broadly conceived sets of methods grounded in an interdisciplinary framework, i.e. the complexities and nuances of transnational lives require triangulating research.

The aim of the proposed session is to bring together researchers that try to overcome the weaknesses of more traditional approaches to migration by relying on multiple instruments and methods for analysing populations different to define, catch and follow, and which are marked by multiple and shifting identities. Since the use of mixed methods may cause tensions and faces its specific challenges, the exchange of knowledge and experiences during the conference are of particular importance. The session organizer is going to make efforts to (co)edit successful contributions and make suggestions for a special issue in e.g. Journal of Mixed Methods Research.

Multi-Level, Multi-Source Survey DesignsDr Tom Smith
To more fully understand human society, surveys need to collect and analyze multi-level and multi-source data (ML-MS data). Methodologically, the use of ML-MS data in general and the augmenting of respondent-supplied information with auxiliary data (AD) in particular can notably help to both measure and reduce total survey error. In particular, AD from sample frames, databases, paradata, and other sources can be used to improve data quality and reduce total survey error. For example, it can be employed to detect and reduce nonresponse bias, to verify interviews, to validate information supplied by respondents, and in other ways. Substantively, ML-MS data can greatly expand theory-driven research such as by allowing multi-level, contextual analysis of neighborhood, community, and other aggregate-level effects and by adding in case-level data that either cannot be supplied by respondents or is not as accurate and reliable as information from AD (e.g. health information from medical records vs. recalled reports of medical care).

The ML-MS approach first collects as much information as practical about the target sample at both the case-level and at various aggregate levels starting during the initial sampling stage. The second step is to augment the sampling frame by linking all cases in the sample to other databases. As Groves (2005) has noted, "Collecting auxiliary variables on respondents and nonrespondents to guide attempts to balance response rates across key subgroups is wise." The third step in ML-MS is to take information gained from the initial case-level linkages to secure additional information. The final step is to record, process, clean, and maintain a large amount of paradata for each case.

Survey methodology and online community researchDr Andraž Petrovčič
Online communities have attracted much attention from social scientists over the last two decades. From the early beginnings of the bulletin-board systems in the late 1980s, through discussion boards and web forums in 1990s, to the recent diffusion of social networks sites, researchers have explored social, psychological and cultural aspects of online phenomena. Such variety of research interests has been accompanied with a variety of methods for data collection and analysis, including virtual ethnography, data mining with "big data", social network analysis, and surveys. Looking at this 20-year period and, especially, after the proliferation of web survey tools at the end of 1990s, survey methodology seems to be the most frequently used approach in online community research. However, little attention has been given to the methodological advances in survey techniques for this specific purpose. This is surprising considering the impressive development of web survey methodology and the diversity of its applications in general population studies. The proposed session aims to close this gap, by providing a forum to present and discuss some of the state-of-the-art activities in survey research of online communities. The session invites proposals that explore the methodological aspects of survey deployment in online community research. These include (but are not limited to) the following issues: design and implementation of survey recruitment techniques, unit and item non-response, non-coverage error, response reluctance, sampling of online community participants, use of incentives, strategies and methods for surveying participants in special online domains such as online social support or health-related groups. We welcome original and innovative theoretical, empirical as well as case studies that might involve various types of online communities such as discussion boards, news-letters and mailing lists, web forums, virtual worlds, and social network sites, wikis and other online collaborative environments.

This section is coorganized with Dr.Katja Lozar Manfreda and Dr. Gregor Petrič

Survey research in developing countries 1Dr Evelyn Ersanilli
Research on survey methodology is burgeoning. However, most research on survey methodology is conducted in developed countries and it remains unclear to what extent best practices developed there are also valid in developing countries.

On the one hand survey researchers in developing countries do not always share the problems of their colleagues in developed countries. Response rates are for instance rarely an issue in rural Africa where social trust is high and surveys are sometimes seen as a welcome break from the monotony of daily life rather than an infringement on personal time. On the other hand the demographic structure and level of development of these countries can pose a number of specific challenges. A high number of different local languages can complicate questionnaire translation, low quality roads make it hard to reach remote villages and obtain a representative sample, ethnic tensions can make the selection of interviewers an arduous task. Some challenges such as the lack of up-to-date data on population size and composition are not unique to the development context, but are more common.

This session aims to explore the challenges involved in conducting survey research in developing countries and discuss best practices. We welcome papers on all phases of survey design and data collection. Papers may address topics such as:

- Creating sampling frames with good coverage
- Consequences of illiteracy/low literacy for questionnaire and answer scale design
- Development of standardised question wording in areas with high linguistic diversity or non-standardised scripts
- Conducting surveys in non-democratic countries
- Conducting surveys in countries with (recent) ethnic tensions or civil war
- The role of gender in survey research in patriarchal cultures
- Use of mobile phone and other modern communication technology in survey research
- Cultural challenges in partnerships with local researchers and authorities (hierarchy, post-colonialism)


Survey research in developing countries 2Dr Evelyn Ersanilli
Research on survey methodology is burgeoning. However, most research on survey methodology is conducted in developed countries and it remains unclear to what extent best practices developed there are also valid in developing countries.

On the one hand survey researchers in developing countries do not always share the problems of their colleagues in developed countries. Response rates are for instance rarely an issue in rural Africa where social trust is high and surveys are sometimes seen as a welcome break from the monotony of daily life rather than an infringement on personal time. On the other hand the demographic structure and level of development of these countries can pose a number of specific challenges. A high number of different local languages can complicate questionnaire translation, low quality roads make it hard to reach remote villages and obtain a representative sample, ethnic tensions can make the selection of interviewers an arduous task. Some challenges such as the lack of up-to-date data on population size and composition are not unique to the development context, but are more common.

This session aims to explore the challenges involved in conducting survey research in developing countries and discuss best practices. We welcome papers on all phases of survey design and data collection. Papers may address topics such as:

- Creating sampling frames with good coverage
- Consequences of illiteracy/low literacy for questionnaire and answer scale design
- Development of standardised question wording in areas with high linguistic diversity or non-standardised scripts
- Conducting surveys in non-democratic countries
- Conducting surveys in countries with (recent) ethnic tensions or civil war
- The role of gender in survey research in patriarchal cultures
- Use of mobile phone and other modern communication technology in survey research
- Cultural challenges in partnerships with local researchers and authorities (hierarchy, post-colonialism)


Survey research in developing countries 3Dr Evelyn Ersanilli
Research on survey methodology is burgeoning. However, most research on survey methodology is conducted in developed countries and it remains unclear to what extent best practices developed there are also valid in developing countries.

On the one hand survey researchers in developing countries do not always share the problems of their colleagues in developed countries. Response rates are for instance rarely an issue in rural Africa where social trust is high and surveys are sometimes seen as a welcome break from the monotony of daily life rather than an infringement on personal time. On the other hand the demographic structure and level of development of these countries can pose a number of specific challenges. A high number of different local languages can complicate questionnaire translation, low quality roads make it hard to reach remote villages and obtain a representative sample, ethnic tensions can make the selection of interviewers an arduous task. Some challenges such as the lack of up-to-date data on population size and composition are not unique to the development context, but are more common.

This session aims to explore the challenges involved in conducting survey research in developing countries and discuss best practices. We welcome papers on all phases of survey design and data collection. Papers may address topics such as:

- Creating sampling frames with good coverage
- Consequences of illiteracy/low literacy for questionnaire and answer scale design
- Development of standardised question wording in areas with high linguistic diversity or non-standardised scripts
- Conducting surveys in non-democratic countries
- Conducting surveys in countries with (recent) ethnic tensions or civil war
- The role of gender in survey research in patriarchal cultures
- Use of mobile phone and other modern communication technology in survey research
- Cultural challenges in partnerships with local researchers and authorities (hierarchy, post-colonialism)


Survey research in developing countries 4Dr Evelyn Ersanilli
Research on survey methodology is burgeoning. However, most research on survey methodology is conducted in developed countries and it remains unclear to what extent best practices developed there are also valid in developing countries.

On the one hand survey researchers in developing countries do not always share the problems of their colleagues in developed countries. Response rates are for instance rarely an issue in rural Africa where social trust is high and surveys are sometimes seen as a welcome break from the monotony of daily life rather than an infringement on personal time. On the other hand the demographic structure and level of development of these countries can pose a number of specific challenges. A high number of different local languages can complicate questionnaire translation, low quality roads make it hard to reach remote villages and obtain a representative sample, ethnic tensions can make the selection of interviewers an arduous task. Some challenges such as the lack of up-to-date data on population size and composition are not unique to the development context, but are more common.

This session aims to explore the challenges involved in conducting survey research in developing countries and discuss best practices. We welcome papers on all phases of survey design and data collection. Papers may address topics such as:

- Creating sampling frames with good coverage
- Consequences of illiteracy/low literacy for questionnaire and answer scale design
- Development of standardised question wording in areas with high linguistic diversity or non-standardised scripts
- Conducting surveys in non-democratic countries
- Conducting surveys in countries with (recent) ethnic tensions or civil war
- The role of gender in survey research in patriarchal cultures
- Use of mobile phone and other modern communication technology in survey research
- Cultural challenges in partnerships with local researchers and authorities (hierarchy, post-colonialism)


Surveying Children and Young People 1Ms Lisa Calderwood
While many large-scale surveys successfully collect a variety of different types of data from children and young people there is relatively little methodological evidence in this area. Much of the literature relating to children and young people's participation in research is taken from small-scale qualitative studies and tends to focus on ethical issues relating to the rights of children and young people. This session will cover experiences of including children and young people in surveys and survey design issues as they relate to children and young people. In particular, submissions are welcomed on:
- designing questionnaires for children and young people, including question testing methods and assessing the reliability and validity of children's self-reports
- collecting sensitive data from children and young people, including methods for ensuring privacy and encouraging accurate reporting
- inclusivity in data collection methods, including facilitating the participation of children with lower literacy levels
- ethical issues in involving children and young people in surveys, including gaining informed consent and protecting children's rights and well-being
- preventing non-response by engaging children and young people in research, including designing survey materials to appeal to children and using new technology and digital media for participant engagement
- collecting different types of data from children and young people, including physical measurements, cognitive assessments, biological samples and time use data
- using different methods of data collection and innovative technology for data collection, including the web and mobile phones


Surveying Children and Young People 2Ms Lisa Calderwood
While many large-scale surveys successfully collect a variety of different types of data from children and young people there is relatively little methodological evidence in this area. Much of the literature relating to children and young people's participation in research is taken from small-scale qualitative studies and tends to focus on ethical issues relating to the rights of children and young people. This session will cover experiences of including children and young people in surveys and survey design issues as they relate to children and young people. In particular, submissions are welcomed on:
- designing questionnaires for children and young people, including question testing methods and assessing the reliability and validity of children's self-reports
- collecting sensitive data from children and young people, including methods for ensuring privacy and encouraging accurate reporting
- inclusivity in data collection methods, including facilitating the participation of children with lower literacy levels
- ethical issues in involving children and young people in surveys, including gaining informed consent and protecting children's rights and well-being
- preventing non-response by engaging children and young people in research, including designing survey materials to appeal to children and using new technology and digital media for participant engagement
- collecting different types of data from children and young people, including physical measurements, cognitive assessments, biological samples and time use data
- using different methods of data collection and innovative technology for data collection, including the web and mobile phones


Surveying Children and Young People 3Ms Lisa Calderwood
While many large-scale surveys successfully collect a variety of different types of data from children and young people there is relatively little methodological evidence in this area. Much of the literature relating to children and young people's participation in research is taken from small-scale qualitative studies and tends to focus on ethical issues relating to the rights of children and young people. This session will cover experiences of including children and young people in surveys and survey design issues as they relate to children and young people. In particular, submissions are welcomed on:
- designing questionnaires for children and young people, including question testing methods and assessing the reliability and validity of children's self-reports
- collecting sensitive data from children and young people, including methods for ensuring privacy and encouraging accurate reporting
- inclusivity in data collection methods, including facilitating the participation of children with lower literacy levels
- ethical issues in involving children and young people in surveys, including gaining informed consent and protecting children's rights and well-being
- preventing non-response by engaging children and young people in research, including designing survey materials to appeal to children and using new technology and digital media for participant engagement
- collecting different types of data from children and young people, including physical measurements, cognitive assessments, biological samples and time use data
- using different methods of data collection and innovative technology for data collection, including the web and mobile phones


Surveys in Developing CountriesMs Deniz Karci Korfali


Use of Eye Tracking in Survey ResearchDr Timo Lenzner
Eye tracking, the recording of peoples' eye movements, has recently evolved as a promising tool for studying the cognitive processes underlying question answering. During the last couple of years, the method has been used in several research studies investigating issues of question wording and question layout, response order effects, and mode effects. Moreover, it has been argued that eye tracking could be useful for pretesting survey questions.
While these previous studies have highlighted the potential merits of eye-tracking methodology, they have also pointed out several challenges in collecting and interpreting eye-tracking data and have called for the need of additional research.
This session seeks to provide a forum for the latest research findings on the use of eye tracking in survey research. It aims at bringing together survey researchers who conduct or are considering conducting eye-tracking studies and offers an opportunity to share experiences and insights on how to use eye tracking in survey research.